The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). It is sometimes called the uterine cervix. The body (upper part) of the uterus, is where a fetus grows. The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus is called the endocervix. The part next to the vagina is the exocervix (or ectocervix). The place where these 2 parts meet is called the transformation zone. Most cervical cancers start in the transformation zone.
Cervical cancers and cervical pre-cancers are classified by how they look under a microscope. There are 2 main types of cervical cancers: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. About 80% to 90% of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers are from the squamous cells that cover the surface of the exocervix. Under the microscope, this type of cancer is made up of cells that are like squamous cells. Squamous cell carcinomas most often begin where the exocervix joins the endocervix.
The remaining 10% to 20% of cervical cancers are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are becoming more common in women born in the last 20 to 30 years. Cervical adenocarcinoma develops from the mucus-producing gland cells of the endocervix. Less commonly, cervical cancers have features of both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. These are called adenosquamous carcinomas or mixed carcinomas.
Although cervical cancers start from cells with pre-cancerous changes (pre-cancers), only some of the women with precancers of the cervix will develop cancer. The change from precancer to cancer usually takes several years - but it can happen in less than a year. For most women, pre-cancerous cells will go away without any treatment. Still, in some women pre-cancers turn into true (invasive) cancers. Treating all pre-cancers can prevent almost all true cancers. Pre-cancerous changes and specific types of treatment for pre-cancers are discussed in the section, "Can Cervical Cancer Be Prevented?"
Pre-cancerous changes are separated into different categories based on how the cells of the cervix look under a microscope. These categories are discussed in the section, "Can Cervical Cancer Be Prevented?
Although almost all cervical cancers are either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, other types of cancer also can start in the cervix. These other types, such as melanoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma, occur more commonly in other parts of the body. This document discusses the more common cervical cancer types, and will not further discuss these rare types.
Risk factors and causes of cervical cancer
Doctors cannot always explain why one woman develops cervical cancer and another does not. However, we do know that a woman with certain risk factors may be more likely than others to develop cervical cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of developing a disease.
Studies have found a number of factors that may increase the risk of cervical cancer. These factors may act together to increase the risk even more:
- Human papillomaviruses (HPVs): HPV infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV is a group of viruses that can infect the cervix. HPV infections are very common. These viruses can be passed from person to person through sexual contact. Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time in their lives. Some types of HPV can cause changes to cells in the cervix. These changes can lead to genital warts, cancer, and other problems. Doctors may check for HPV even if there are no warts or other symptoms.
If a woman has an HPV infection, her doctor can discuss ways to avoid infecting other people. The Pap test can detect cell changes in the cervix caused by HPV. (See the "Screening" section to learn more about the Pap test.) Treatment of these cell changes can prevent cervical cancer. There are several treatment methods, including freezing or burning the infected tissue. Sometimes medicine also helps.
Lack of regular Pap tests: Cervical cancer is more common among women who do not have regular Pap tests. The Pap test helps doctors find precancerous cells. Treating precancerous cervical changes often prevents cancer.
Weakened immune system (the body's natural defense system): Women with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) infection or who take drugs that suppress the immune system have a higher-than-average risk of developing cervical cancer. For these women, doctors suggest regular screening for cervical cancer.
Age: Cancer of the cervix occurs most often in women over the age of 40.
Sexual history: Women who have had many sexual partners have a higher-than-average risk of developing cervical cancer. Also, a woman who has had sexual intercourse with a man who has had many sexual partners may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. In both cases, the risk of developing cervical cancer is higher because these women have a higher-than-average risk of HPV infection.
Smoking cigarettes: Women with an HPV infection who smoke cigarettes have a higher risk of cervical cancer than women with HPV infection who do not smoke.
Using birth control pills for a long time: Using birth control pills for a long time (5 or more years) may increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection.
Having many children: Studies suggest that giving birth to many children may increase the risk of cervical cancer among women with HPV infection.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) may increase the risk of a rare form of cervical cancer and certain other cancers of the reproductive system in daughters exposed to this drug before birth. DES was given to some pregnant women in the United States between about 1940 and 1971. (It is no longer given to pregnant women.)
Women who think they may be at risk for cancer of the cervix should discuss this concern with their doctor. They may want to ask about a schedule for checkups.
Symptoms of cervical cancer
Precancerous changes and early cancers of the cervix generally do not cause pain or other symptoms. It is important not to wait to feel pain before seeing a doctor.
When the disease gets worse, women may notice one or more of these symptoms:
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam
- Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before
- Bleeding after menopause
* Increased vaginal discharge
* Pelvic pain
* Pain during sexual intercourse
Infections or other health problems may also cause these symptoms. Only a doctor can tell for sure. A woman with any of these symptoms should tell her doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
~ You can find more about Type of Cancer here ~
I had been diagnosed that I have a Cervical Cancer after the body check. I and my parents was very sad and shock for the result. Before this I heard about Master Leong from my colleague, my colleague mother have Alzheimer and she had been cure almost 90%. I get the contact from my colleague and get a treatment at The Tole. After 4 months I was been cured.Fanny ,49 years old
Email your question about
disease to Master